Week 5

Week 5 meeting (Tuesday): all students who are working on Age-invaders and Confucius computer met up and discussed tasks which assigned by Eng tat for past two weeks. The discussion is mainly on readings and findings in intergenerational communication, Confucius and music mathematics.

Week 5 small meeting (Wednesday): Vira and I were assigned to work on music-painting of Confucius computer and Eng tat shown us the demo of music-painting and assigned individual task to us.

1. Understand music-painting using processing and look for better platform.
2. Search for 3D engine that could use for painting.
3. Study Chinese painting and animated 3D Chinese painting style
4. Summary readings of intergenerational communication

Brief introduction of current music-painting system:
Music-painting in Confucius computer filter and transform any type of music into five voices which in common with five elements (wu-hsing). The output music is then visualized in the form of dynamic Chinese paintings which represent five elements accordingly. The system also allows bidirectional music-painting interaction that enables users to manipulate the Chinese painting to generate music output.

The platform which used to generate music-painting is PROCESSING. It is an open source programming language and environment for people who want to program images, animation, and interactions. At current stage of our project, processing is used to visualize painting and support music filtering which done by MAX/MSP.
Eng tat has further divided tasks that I will work on painting. The problem pointed out is that processing platform is not good enough for real time interaction (the system response is slow); And we also would like to generate real animated interactive Chinese painting. (e.g. birds are flying in the sky, the tree leaves are waved in the wind, the river flows in and fisherman is fishing).
Therefore, firstly, I need to look for a better platform that could replace processing and figure out how to draw real time 3D animation in Chinese painting style.

Study of Chinese painting
(Two Methods for Creating Chinese Painting, Clara Chan ,Visualization Laboratory,Texas A&M University )

Traditional Chinese painting falls into 2 categories:
• gong bi - serious work with comprehensive preliminary drawings
• xie yi (freehand brush work) - "simple artistic creation”, spontaneous and free.

Four characteristics of Xie yi (free hand brush work): Qi, Fei Bai, Atmospheric perspective (depth), irregularity.

In creating 3D Chinese painting, the difficult part is how to realize those five characteristics using computer animation.

Animated 3D Chinese Painting
• Use the most common computer animation production pipeline
modeling -> animating -> shading -> lighting -> compositing
• Model each stroke of the painting with a piece of geometry
• Lighting model


• Shader layer
Base color, Fei Bai, Split End, Pressured End, Outline, Irregular


• Write procedural shaders to create the Chinese painting look
Language: Renderman, OpenGl shading language
Shaders are written in layers
• “fei bai" look achieved by lighting
• Transparency depends on distance from the camera
• Postprocessing - blurring

I have searched few 3D engines, it will be discussed with Eng tat and hope one of them could be used for project.
G3D engine: real-time rendering
Quest3D: 3D real-time engine
GlTIP:a freeware graphics application which produces visually convincing 3D animation effects from an ordinary 2D image. It runs on the Windows platform and can take advantage of any graphics card with OpenGL acceleration.
3D engine database list most reviewed engines [http://www.devmaster.net/engines/]

Reading summaries of intergenerational communication

Reading 1:

Intergenerational Ambivalence: A New Approach to the Study of Parent-Child Relations in Later Life. Author(s): Kurt Luescher and Karl Pillemer Source: Journal of Marriage and the Family, Vol. 60, No. 2 (May, 1998), pp. 413-425 Published by: National Council on Family Relations

Ambivalence is an useful organizing concept for understanding intergenerational relations.
An overarching theme of the postmodern perspective is that, in contemporary society, fixed relationships have weakened, and societal guidance about how these relationships should be carried out has nearly disappeared.
As a general concept, we use the term "intergenerational ambivalence" to designate contradictions in relationships between parents and adult offspring that cannot be reconciled. The concept has two dimensions:
(a) Contradictions at the level of social structure, evidenced in institutional resources and requirements, such as statuses, roles, and norms.
(b) Contradictions at the subjective level, in terms of cognitions, emotions, and motivations.
Simply emphasizing negative perceptions in intergenerational relationships does not constitute an analysis of ambivalence. Instead, the critical component is the presence of both positive and negative perceptions by an individual.

Our reading of the literature suggests three aspects of parent-child relations in later life that are especially likely to generate ambivalence. These are:
(a) ambivalence between dependence and autonomy.
Specifically, in adulthood, ambivalence exists between the desire of parents and children for help, support, and nurturance and the countervailing pressures for freedom from the parent-child relationship (cf. Cohler, 1983; Cohler & Altergott, 1995; Moss & Moss, 1992)
e.g. parents wished to help their daughters and to feel "solidarity" with them, but simultaneously resented incursions on their autonomy.
(b) Ambivalence resulting from conflicting norms regarding intergenerational relations,
Norms entail widely accepted rules that specify appropriate behavior in particular circumstances.
Many felt that there was no way to resolve the contradiction between the demands of solidarity and the desire for reciprocity, and they were left with profound feelings of guilt.
(c) Ambivalence resulting from solidarity.
families in which solidarity of all kinds exists (for example, coresidence or close proximity, extensive mutual dependency for help, frequent interaction) are especially likely to contain solidarity's opposites: deep dissatisfaction about the relationship, struggles for independence, and serious conflict.

Reading 2:

Building communication theory, 4th edition. D. A.infante, A. S. Rancer, D.F.Womack. waveland press,inc.

Nature of communication
1. Communication is a symbolic process…focuses primarily on the activity of using symbols.
2. Communication is a social process…interpersonal communication is something that people do together, not something that a single individual can do.
3. Communication involves co-orientation…what is required for communication, verbal or nonverbal, is co-orientation-two individuals’ mutual awareness of each other.
4. Communication involves individual interpretation.
5. Communication involves shared meaning…receivers and senders share some basic meaning for the concept.
6. Communication occurs in a context…the idea of communication and context is that the nature of the source, message, and receiver differs according to the situation.

Functions of Nonverbal Communication
1. Sending Uncomfortable messages…eye and facial behavior and the directness of body orientation can send the message without as much embarrassmet.
2. Forming impressions
3. Making Relationships clear…Content refers to the topic of the message. nonverbal communication functions to establish and clarify the relationship dimension of communication.
4. Regulating interaction. As a regulator, nonverbal behavior operate in terms of initiating interaction, clarifying relationships, directing turn-taking, guiding emotional expression, and leave-taking.
5. Influencing people…persuasion, deciding on a person’s character.
6. Reinforcing and modifying verbal messages.

Reading 3:

Intergenerational communication across cultures: young people’s
perceptions of conversations with family elders, non-family elders
and same-age peers.
Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 18: 1–32, 2003.Kluwer Academic Publishers.

To study cross-cultural similarities and differences in intergenerational communication

Intergenerational communication is reportedly be more problematic than intragenerational communication and, consistent with previous findings, this pattern is more evident in East Asian nations on some variables.

Aging and the elderly in Asian cultures
Suggestion 1:
Some suggest that the elderly may be unwitting, anachronistic victims of the industrialization, urbanization and economic success of Asian cultures (the so-called Economic Dragons).
This is likely the case in those cultures that have experienced exponential economic and technological boom in the last few decades where older people may have been left behind by the rush for business growth and modernization

Suggestion 2:
Elderly individuals command a powerful and respected role in Asian cultural contexts (Ho, 1994; Levy & Langer, 1994; Martin, 1988; Palmore,
1999; Sung, 1995;Yum, 1988).
Filial piety—the Confucian doctrine of “Hsiao Ching”—teaches that elderly people should be respected and that it is the offspring’s responsibility. Nonetheless, given changes in the family structure, modernization, and westernization, and so forth, there is evidence of a perceived erosion in the strength of filial piety (e.g., Chow, 1999).

Aging and the elderly in Western cultures
For many cultures around the world, there is an expectation that family members will provide social and practical support to each other throughout the lifespan, varying according to need (e.g., Harris&Long, 1999).

Young – overaccommodate:
Some young people “overaccommodate” (e.g., are overly polite, warm and grammatically and/or ideationally simple) to elderly people (Edwards & Noller, 1993; Kemper, 1994). This tendency is particularly, but not only, evident when negative stereotypes are activated (Hummert, Shaner, Garstka&Henry, 1998). Overaccommodation often emerges irrespective of the elder’s functional autonomy (e.g., Caporeal & Culbertson, 1986) and is not always valued as entirely appropriate for, or by, many socially- and cognitively-active older people (Ryan & Cole, 1990).

Older – underaccommodate:
Older communicators are construed as “underaccommodating” by their younger interlocutors when talking excessively about their own circumstances, and in ways that younger participants find difficult to manage communicatively (Coupland, Coupland&Giles, 1991). Older people were reported as negatively stereotyping young adults as irresponsible and/or naive. As a consequence, young people tended to describe themselves as “reluctantly accommodating” to older, dissatisfying partners.

Asian vs Western
Traditionally, it has been thought that filial piety is particularly strong in Asian cultures and less so in nations with populations of predominantly Western European ancestry (Kiefer, 1992; Palmore, 1975).

While Asian respondents claimed they would provide elderly family (and others) with more tangible instrumental assistance (e.g., financial), it was Western students who were willing to offer more forms of communicative support
(i.e., by listening, being in contact).

Participants study
Participants in both cultural blocks indicated an obligation to be most deferential towards non-family elders, followed by family elders, followed by same-age peers. Whereas both groups perceived interactions with same-age peers more positively than with the two older groups, the Western group perceived the older age groups more positively than did East Asians.

Results showed that East Asians perceived family elders to be as accommodating as same-age peers, whereas Westerners perceived family elders as more accommodating than their sameage peers.

Reading 4:

Parent care: the core component of intergenerational relationships
in middle and late adulthood,
Alfons Marcoen, Published online: 27 September 2005
_ Springer-Verlag 2005

Intergenerational relationships essentially imply the exchange of resources between younger and older persons in the extended family and the society as a whole.

Adult children provide help and support to elderly parents, and more in general, societies take care of older citizens.

Interacting societal, contextual, and personal factors play a role in making adult children more or less concerned about, and willing to take care of their aging parents.

Elderly persons are the care-recipients, are changing in changing societies.

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